Manufacturing Costs: Types and Cost Calculation


This could include the cost of electricity and other utilities, the depreciation of your manufacturing equipment, property taxes and insurance for the equipment and facility, as well as other overhead costs. You may find that you can reduce direct material costs by replacing an expensive material or supplier with a more affordable one that does the job just as well. Perhaps you could cut down on shipping costs by buying more in bulk or locally.

  1. The total manufacturing cost formula is a simple equation in which all of these are added together.
  2. Implementing service level agreements aid transparency, support product delivery schedules and help to maintain consistent materials quality.
  3. Here’s a short video explaining how the cost of goods sold formula works in manufacturing.
  4. This could be material costs (for example, raw materials) and time costs (staff wages).

They include factory utilities, rent, maintenance, depreciation of machinery, and indirect labor. If your machinery suffers breakages or depreciation during this process, you should consider incorporating these financial losses too. Manufacturing overhead also includes the indirect costs that are not part of direct materials or direct labour. An example of this difference is if the company producing blankets determines that the total manufacturing cost for 1000 blankets is $20,000.


It may also shine a light on costs that have, over time, become extortionate without you realising. This newfound visibility around spend could lead to a renegotiation with suppliers, to attain cheaper deals. Or you may research some other potential partners, who can provide you with a better price (whilst supplying you with equally good materials).

What are material costs in manufacturing?

Some companies may even decide to include costs related to training the production staff in direct labor costs. The direct material cost should never be calculated by multiplying the number of final products with the material quantities from their BOMs. Work in process inventory, waste, and scrap all need to be accounted for as well. This is why raw material inventory and material purchases should only be used to calculate direct material costs.

Productivity, expressed as a percentage between inputs and outputs, measures how efficiently inputs such as labor and capital are used to produce a given output level. When looking for more cost-effective equipment/technology, you may stumble upon more complex mechanisms that provide a much greater ROI (return on investment). If we enter those inputs into our WIP formula, we arrive at $44 million as the cost of goods manufactured (COGM). The beginning work in progress (WIP) inventory balance for 2021 will be assumed to be $20 million, which was the ending WIP inventory balance from 2020.

Cost of Goods Manufactured Calculator – Excel Template

The important thing to note is that the formula can be modified or adjusted depending on the specific needs of the manufacturer. Additionally, it is important to monitor and 
accurately account for production costs

 to ensure the accuracy of the data. While quite basic on paper, gathering precise information on all these constituents can be a challenge in real life. Since the total manufacturing cost is an essential metric for understanding the productivity and profitability of a business, it really pays to get it right the first time.

The Relationship Between Operating Income & Ending Inventory

Best of all, by using the information you provide in your bill of materials, Katana automatically calculates the costs of each operation using the moving average cost formula. This means that the value of your inventory is divided by the quantity in stock every time a new purchase is made — your inventory value and actual production costs are continuously and accurately calculated. During the production period, Flying Pigs purchased an additional $23,200 in raw materials. At the end of the production cycle, the company had a final raw materials inventory of $17,600. A furniture manufacturing company has $8,000 in raw materials in inventory at the start of a quarter.

Cost control, according to Fabrizi, is one of the top benefits of calculating manufacturing costs. According to McKinsey’s research, cutting down manufacturing costs, in addition to boosting productivity, is the key for manufacturing companies to remain competitive. The Cost of Goods Manufactured (COGM) represents the total costs incurred in the process of converting raw material into finished goods. Removing steps from the production process to save money also increases efficiency, ensuring that items are created faster (which leads to greater customer satisfaction).

The cost of raw materials can fluctuate based on the amount of material purchased and the current price of the materials at the time of purchase. The price of these materials may also include shipping costs, so buying in bulk can be a way to cut down on expenses. Implementing online inventory control software can help improve forecasting.

In coffee manufacturing, for example, the cost of coffee beans is a direct material cost. And for craft brewers, their direct material costs would include the yeast, hops and water used. This will be the cost of rent on the factory, heating, phone and other utilities, the salary of managers, packing and shipping clerks, administrative staff and so forth. First, we need to understand what manufacturing cost is, the different types of manufacturing costs as well as some examples to get context for what we’re talking about. Then we’ll provide formulas to calculate each type of manufacturing cost and the total manufacturing cost.

These are general costs of doing business and are calculated separately as overhead expenses for the manufacturing business. Businesses can monitor and control manufacturing costs by setting up a robust cost tracking system, conducting regular budget vs. actual cost analyses, and identifying areas for improvement. An electronics manufacturer might routinely review material waste and implement measures to reduce it, leading to ongoing cost control.

In short, tracking total manufacturing cost can reveal how well a business is operating. If the figure increases between manufacturing accounting periods, it can indicate that resources are not being used efficiently. Determining manufacturing overhead expenses also helps with budgets for manufacturing overhead. Knowing why is accounting important for startups your manufacturing overhead costs means you can budget the money needed to cover these costs. Being able to make accurate estimates of your manufacturing costs is critical to a company’s profitability and competitive advantage. Before work hits the production line, one must know how to calculate manufacturing cost.

Here are some frequently asked questions (FAQs) and answers that address key concepts related to manufacturing costs. Fabrizi also talked about the common challenges manufacturers face when calculating the costs of production. In his experience, the most common challenges are a lack of accurate data and the complexity of costing methods.